Hardscape refers to hard landscape materials in the built environment structures that are incorporated into a landscape.[1] This can include paved areas, driveways, retaining walls, sleeper walls, stairs, walkways, and any other landscaping made up of hard wearing materials such as wood, stone, and concrete, as opposed to softscape, the horticultural elements of a landscape.

Hard landscaping involves projects that cover the entirety of the yard and that are necessary before soft landscaping features come into play. Hard landscaping is very much altering the foundation of the yard, the "bricks and mortar", and so only once this is completed can the landscaper begin to focus on the more beautiful features of the yard, hard-soft landscaping such as the floral arrangements, trees and shrubs and perfecting color schemes. One key feature of hard landscaping is to do with the absorption of water – something that is of great importance given the climate. Hard landscaping ensures that worrying about water after heavy rain or snowfall is not an issue. The right water absorption and irrigation system installed through hard landscaping, coupled with hard materials that safely move water away from the property can ensure that soil movement is never a problem and that the yard stays a drier, enjoyable living space, rather than a wet and muddy bog. There are soft landscaping options that can help to achieve this, but the bulk of this is achieved through hard landscaping.

From an urban planning perspective, hardscapes can include very large features, such as paved roads, driveways or fountains, and even small pools. Most water features are hardscapes because they require a barrier to retain the water, instead of letting it drain into the surrounding soil.

Hardscaping allows the erection of man-made landscaping features that would otherwise be impossible due to soil erosion, including some that compensate for large amounts of human traffic that would cause wear on bare earth or grass. For example, sheer vertical features are possible.

Without nearby bare soil, or natural drainage channels or culverts, hardscape with an impervious surface requires artificial methods of drainage or surface runoff to carry off the water that would normally be absorbed into the ground as groundwater and prevent premature wear to itself. Lack of capacity, or poorly planned or executed drainage or grading of the surface can cause problems after severe storms or heavy extended periods of rain fall, such as flooding, washout, mud flows, sink holes, accelerated erosion, wet rot to wood elements, drowning of plants trees and shrubs, and even foundation problems to an adjacent home such as cracking the foundation, basement flooding due to water infiltration, and pest infiltration, such as ants and other insects entering through damaged areas.


Difference between Hardscaping and Softcaping

To better understand how to design for a landscape, the two main elements that make up outdoor living spaces are known as hardscape and softscape. The easiest ways to remember the differences: Hardscape and softscape are the complete opposites of each other, yet both are necessary to make a landscape fully functional. Both terms are often used to emphasize the distinction between the two. Hardscape is the hard stuff in your yard: concrete, bricks, and stone. Softscape is the soft, growing stuff, like perennial flowers, shrubs, succulents, and trees. Softscape is living; hardscape is not.

Ideally, a well-designed landscape incorporates a balance between the two elements. We've all seen properties—maybe in your own neighborhood—that have too much of one or the other. A front yard that's heavy on the hardscape might have a circular paved driveway, kind of like a hotel. While some people—those who have or want lots of cars—love the idea and it used to be considered a swank design feature, it's just too much paving and can look like a commercial property. All you need is a valet. Add landscaping that mostly includes rocks and gravel, some architectural light posts, maybe a stone retaining wall, and it's hardscape overload.

Conversely, a yard that goes overboard with softscape might look like a jungle—maybe that unkempt old house down the street or just a neighbor who has become a tad plant-happy and has a vegetable garden, herb garden, roses, succulents, fruit trees, ornamental grasses, topiary, etc. growing in a chaotic mess with no paths or separation in which to access them.

Too much of one or the other in a front yard can compromise your home's curb appeal and might bring down property values for the neighborhood. As for the backyard: an overabundance of hardscape does not create a relaxing, paradise-like atmosphere. On the other hand, too much softscape can get out of control and begs to be pruned and weeded. Try to strike a balance between the two.

Hardscape Elements

Once you know the distinction, the characteristics of hardscape make sense. Among them: Hardscape can be thought of as "hard," yet movable, parts of the landscape, like gravel, paving, and stones.

  • They are inanimate objects.
  • Hardscape is solid and unchanging.
  • Other examples of hardscape include retaining walls, pavers for paths or patios, outdoor kitchens, water features, gazebos, decks, and driveways.
  • It can be natural, like stone, or manmade, like an outdoor structure or a planter.
  • Hardscape materials have different effects on the environment. Pavement, which is hardscape, prevents water from soaking into the soil, thus increasing runoff, which can carry contaminants into streams. Porous materials allow water to soak into the soil.
  • A shrub is not hardscape.

Softscape Features

Plants are available in a variety of colors, shapes, textures, and sizes. When selecting softscape:

  • Consider these the "soft" horticultural (living, growing) components of the landscape. These might include flowers, trees, shrubs, ground covers, etc.
  • Change and evolve constantly, as they grow and adapt to climate and other conditions.
  • Are softer to the touch, quite literally. Think about touching the leaves of a tree or perennial, or blades of grass. They are soft, not hard.
  • A brick wall is not softscape.

Design Considerations for Small Spaces

With smart planning, even the smallest yard can be well designed and incorporate areas of hardscape and softscape. Don't forget vertical space for growing shrubs and trees or hanging a planter on a wall or fence. Raised planters and pedestals (hardscape) with container gardens (softscape) draw the eye upward and economize on space. Pavers placed in a slight curve or around a corner give the illusion that there might be much more yard.

Make wise use out of hardscape features. A low retaining wall could double as extra seating in a small yard and hold a planter of herbs. Sturdy, low-growing ground covers that can tolerate foot traffic add softscape between pavers and retaining walls, creating a nice balance.

More Hardscape Used in Drought Tolerant Landscaping

Many regions affected by drought have restricted water use, forcing residents to rethink and actually change their landscape. Instead of letting that lawn continue to die and depress everyone who drives or walks past it, think about incorporating at least a couple forms of hardscape into your front and back yards. In front, you could replace the dead grass with decomposed granite (DG), pea gravel, pavers, or even concrete. Create beds of drought-tolerant plants or specimens with similar water needs. The bonus: you might gain extra livable space in your front or back yard.